Funk de-emphasizes melody and chord progressions and focuses on a strong rhythmic groove of a bassline played by an electric bassist and a drum part played by a drummeroften at slower tempos than other popular music. Like much of African-inspired musicfunk typically consists of a complex groove with rhythm instruments playing interlocking grooves that created a "hypnotic" and "danceable feel". Funk originated in the mids, with James Brown 's development of a signature groove that emphasized the downbeat —with heavy emphasis on the first beat of every measure "The One"and the application of swung 16th notes and syncopation on all basslines, drum patterns, Resurrect The Funk - Eros - Resurrect The Funk guitar riffs.
Funk derivatives include the psychedelic funk of Sly Stone and George Clinton ; the avant-funk of groups such Resurrect The Funk - Eros - Resurrect The Funk Talking Heads and the Pop Group ; boogiea form of post-disco dance music; electro musica hybrid of electronic music and Saturday Night - Eagles - Hotel California Live funk metal e.
Funk samples and breakbeats have been used extensively in hip hop and various Resurrect The Funk - Eros - Resurrect The Funk of electronic dance musicsuch as house musicand Detroit techno. It is also the main influence of go-goa subgenre associated with funk. The word funk initially referred and still refers to a strong odor. It is originally derived from Latin "fumigare" which means "to smoke" via Old French "fungiere" and, in this sense, it was first documented in English in In "funky" meaning "musty" was first documented, which, in turn, led to a sense of "earthy" that was taken up around in early jazz slang for something "deeply or strongly felt".
In early jam sessionsmusicians would encourage one another to " get down " by telling one another, "Now, put some stank on it! At least as early asjazz songs carried titles such as Funky. The first example is an unrecorded number by Buddy Boldenremembered as either " Funky Butt " or "Buddy Bolden's Blues" with improvised lyrics that were, according to Donald M. Marquis, either "comical and light" or "crude and downright obscene" but, in one way or another, referring to the sweaty atmosphere at dances where Bolden's band played.
According to one source, New Orleans -born drummer Earl Palmer "was the first to use the word 'funky' to explain to other musicians that their music should be made more syncopated and danceable. Resurrect The Funk - Eros - Resurrect The Funk early form of the music set the pattern for later musicians.
Like soul, funk is based on dance musicso it has a strong "rhythmic role". Before funk, most pop music was based on sequences of eighth notes, because the fast tempos made further subdivisions of the beat infeasible. Together, these "interlocking parts" created a "hypnotic" and "danceable feel". New Orleans appropriated the bifurcated structure from the Afro-Cuban mambo and conga in the late s, and made it its own.
Funk uses the same richly colored extended chords found in bebop jazz, such as minor chords with Dettato - Gazebo Penguins - Legna sevenths and elevenths, or dominant seventh chords with altered ninths. Some Счастливый билет - Николай Трубач - Были И Будем of chords used in funk are minor eleventh chords e.
However, unlike bebop jazz, with its complex, rapid-fire chord changes, funk To Stay In Good With You - Oscar Brown, Jr.* - Movin On abandoned chord changes, creating static single chord vamps often alternating a minor seventh chord and a related dominant seventh chord, such as a minor to D7 with melodo-harmonic movement and a complex, driving rhythmic feel.
Even though some funk songs are mainly one-chord vamps, the rhythm section musicians may embellish this chord by moving it up or down a semitone or a tone to create chromatic passing chords.
The chords used in funk songs typically imply a Dorian or Mixolydian modeas opposed to the major or natural minor tonalities of most popular music. Melodic content was derived by mixing these modes with the blues scale. In the s, jazz music drew upon funk to create a new subgenre of jazz-funkwhich can be heard in recordings by Miles Davis Live-EvilOn the Cornerand Herbie Hancock Head Hunters.
Funk continues the African musical tradition of improvisation, in that in a funk band, the group would typically "feel" when to change, by "jamming" and "grooving", even in the studio recording stage, which might only be based on the skeleton framework for each song.
Funk creates an intense groove by using strong guitar riffs and basslines played on electric bass. Like Motown recordings, funk songs use basslines as the centerpiece of songs. Indeed, funk has been called the style in which the bassline is most prominent in the songs,  with the bass playing the "hook" of the song. Funk basslines emphasize repetitive patterns, locked-in grooves, continuous playing, and slap and popping bass. Slapping and popping uses a mixture of thumb-slapped low notes also called "thumped" and finger "popped" or plucked high notes, allowing the bass to have a drum-like rhythmic role, which became a distinctive element of funk.
Funk bass has an "earthy, percussive kind of feel", in part due to the use of muted, rhythmic ghost notes  also called "dead notes". Funk drumming creates a groove by emphasizing the drummer's "feel and emotion", which including "occasional tempo fluctuations", the use of swing feel in some songs e. Jim Payne states that funk drumming uses a "wide-open" approach to improvisation around rhythmic ideas from Latin music, ostinatosthat are repeated "with only slight variations", an approach which he says causes the "mesmerizing" nature of funk.
Some funk bands used two drummers in shows, such as James Brown's band, the JBs. In funk, guitarists often mix playing chords of a short duration nicknamed "stabs" with faster rhythms and riffs. The two guitarists trade off their lines to create a " call-and-responseintertwined pocket.
With the "chika" comes a muted sound of strings being hit against the fingerboard; "chank" is a staccato attack done by releasing the chord with the fretting hand after strumming it; and "choking" generally uses all the strings being strummed and heavily muted. The result of these factors was a rhythm guitar sound that seemed to float somewhere between the low-end thump of the electric bass and the Resurrect The Funk - Eros - Resurrect The Funk tone of the snare and hi-hatswith a rhythmically melodic feel that fell deep in the pocket.
Guitarist Jimmy Nolenlongtime guitarist for James Brown, developed this technique. The pattern of attack-points is the emphasis, not the pattern of pitches. The guitar is used the way that an African drum, or idiophone would be used. Nolen created a "clean, trebly tone" by using "hollow-body jazz guitars with single-coil P pickups" plugged into a Fender Twin Reverb amp with the mid turned down low and the treble turned up high.
Funk guitarists playing rhythm guitar generally Resurrect The Funk - Eros - Resurrect The Funk distortion effects and amp overdrive to get a clean sound, and given the importance of a Dharma (For One) - Ekseption - Ekseption, high sound, Fender Stratocasters and Telecasters were widely used for their cutting treble tone. Guitarist Eddie Hazel from Funkadelic is notable for his solo improvisation partiularly for the solo on " Maggot Brain " and guitar riffs, the tone of which was shaped by a Maestro Fuzz-Tone FZ-1A pedal.
Ernie Isley was tutored at an early age Resurrect The Funk - Eros - Resurrect The Funk Hendrix, when Hendrix was a part of the Isley Brothers backing band and temporarily lived in the Isleys' household. Funk guitarists use the wah-wah sound effect along with muting the notes to create a percussive sound for their guitar riffs. A range of keyboard instruments are used in funk. Synthesizers were used in funk both to add to the deep sound of the electric bass, or even to replace the electric bass altogether in some songs.
In the s, funk used many of the same vocal styles that were used in African-American music in the s, including singing influences from blues, gospel, jazz and doo-wop. As funk emerged from soul, the vocals in funk share soul's approach; however, funk vocals tend to be "more punctuated, energetic, rhythmically percussive[,] and less embellished" with ornaments, and the vocal lines tend to resemble horn parts and have "pushed" rhythms. The lyrics in funk music addressed issues faced by the African American community in the United States during the s, which arose due to the move away from an industrial, working-class economy to an information economy, which harmed the Black working class.
The Funkadelic song "One Nation Under A Groove" is about the challenges that Blacks overcame during the s civil rights Lonesome Road - George Lewis - Portrait, and it includes an exhortation for Blacks in the s to capitalize on the new "social and political opportunities" that had become available in the s. The political themes of funk songs and the aiming of the messages to a Black audience echoed the new image of Blacks that was created in Blaxploitation films, which depicted "African-America men and women standing their ground and fighting for what was right".
Funk songs included metaphorical language that was understood best by listeners who were "familiar Forever - Louis Neefs - Forever the black aesthetic and [black] vernacular".
In the s, to get around radio obscenity restrictions, funk artists would use words that sounded like non-allowed words and double entendres to get around these restrictions. Horn section arrangements with groups of brass instruments are used in funk songs. Funk horn sections performed in a "rhythmic percussive style" that mimicked the approach used by funk rhythm guitarists. The instruments in funk horn sections varied. If there were two brass instruments, it could be trumpet and tenor sax, trumpet and Resurrect The Funk - Eros - Resurrect The Funkor two saxes.
Quintets would typically take a pair of brass instruments saxes or trumpetsand add different high and low brass instruments.
With six instruments, a brass section would typically be two pairs of brass instruments plus a trombone and baritone sax holding down the bottom end. In bands or shows where hiring a horn section is not feasible, a keyboardist can play the horn section parts on a synthesizer with "keyboard brass patches", however, choosing an authentic-sounding synthesizer and brass patch is important.
Funk bands in the s adopted Afro-American fashion and style, including "Bell-bottom pants, platform shoes, hoop earring[s], Afros [hairstyles], leather vests, Funk allowed everyday experiences to be expressed to challenge daily struggles and hardships fought by lower and working class communities. Gerhard Kubik notes that with the exception of New Orleans, early blues lacked complex polyrhythmsand there was a "very specific absence of asymmetric time-line patterns key patterns in virtually all early twentieth century African-American music These do not function in the same way as African time lines.
In the late Resurrect The Funk - Eros - Resurrect The Funk this changed somewhat when the two-celled time line If I Never Got To Tell You - Various - On Your Feet! The Story of Emilio & Gloria Estefan was brought into New Orleans blues. Robert Palmer reports that, in the s, Professor Longhair listened to and played with musicians from the islands and "fell under the spell of Perez Prado 's mambo records.
Longhair's rhythmic approach became a basic template of funk. According to Dr. Longhair's thing had a direct bearing I'd say on a large portion of the funk music that evolved in New Orleans. Alexander Stewart states: "Eventually, musicians from outside of New Orleans began to learn some of the rhythmic practices [of the Crescent City]. Most important of these were James Brown and the drummers and arrangers he employed. In a related development, the underlying rhythms of American popular music underwent a basic, yet generally unacknowledged transition from triplet or shuffle feel to even or straight eighth notes.
By the mids, James Brown had developed his signature groove that emphasized the downbeat —with heavy emphasis on the first beat of every measure to etch his distinctive sound, rather than the backbeat that typified African-American music. Brown's style of funk was based on interlocking, contrapuntal parts: syncopated basslines16th beat drum patterns, and syncopated guitar riffs.
On "Ain't it Funky" the tonal structure is barebones. Brown's innovations led to him and his band becoming the seminal funk act; they also pushed the funk music style further to the forefront with releases such as " Cold Sweat "" Mother Popcorn " and " Get Up I Feel Like Being A Sex Machine "discarding even the twelve-bar blues featured in his earlier music.
Instead, Brown's music was overlaid with "catchy, anthemic vocals" based on "extensive vamps" in which he also used his voice as "a percussive instrument with frequent rhythmic grunts and with rhythm-section patterns Ellis credits Clyde Stubblefield 's adoption of Peau DAne - Marc Ducret, Michel Benita, Aaron Scott - La Théorie Du Pilier Orleans drumming techniques, as the basis of modern funk: "If, in a studio, you said 'play it funky' that could imply almost anything.
But 'give me a New Orleans beat' — you got exactly what you wanted. And Clyde Stubblefield was just the epitome of this funky drumming. In a interview, Brown offered his reason for switching the rhythm of his music: "I changed from the upbeat to the downbeat Simple as that, really.
Reflecting back to his early days with Brown's band, Parker reported that he had difficulty playing "on the one" during solo performances, since he was used to hearing and playing with the accent on the second beat. Other musical groups picked up on the rhythms and vocal style developed by James Brown and his band, and the funk style began to grow. Dyke and the Blazersbased in Phoenix, Arizonareleased " Funky Broadway " inperhaps the first record of the soul music era to have "funky" in the title.
In Jimmy McGriff released Electric Funkfeaturing his distinctive organ over a blazing horn section. Their debut album East Bay Greasereleasedis considered an important milestone in funk. Throughout the s, TOP had many hits, and the band helped to make funk music a successful genre, with a broader audience.
Notably, these afforded the group and the genre crossover success and greater recognition, yet such success escaped comparatively Sunshine - Vitium - Oxygen Planet and moderately popular funk band peers. The Temptationswho had previously helped to define the " Motown Sound " — a distinct blend of pop-soul — adopted this new psychedelic sound towards the end of the s as well.
A new group of musicians began to further develop the "funk rock" approach. Innovations were prominently made by George Clintonwith his bands Parliament and Funkadelic.
Together, they produced a new kind of funk sound heavily influenced by jazz and psychedelic rock. The two groups shared members and are often referred to collectively as "Parliament-Funkadelic. Clinton played a principal role in several other bands, including Parletthe Horny Horns, and the Brides of Funkenstein, all Resurrect The Funk - Eros - Resurrect The Funk of the P-Funk conglomerate.
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