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A landfill site also known as a tipdumprubbish dumpgarbage dump or dumping ground and historically as a midden  is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial. Landfill is the oldest form of waste treatmentalthough the burial of the waste is modern; historically, refuse was simply left in piles or thrown into pits. Historically, landfills have been the most common method of organized waste disposal and remain Landfill - Assassins in many places around the world.
Some landfills are also used for waste management purposes, such as the temporary storage, consolidation and transfer, or processing of waste material sorting, treatment, or recycling. Unless they are stabilized, these areas may experience severe shaking or soil liquefaction of the ground during a large earthquake. Typically, operators of well-run landfills for non-hazardous waste meet predefined specifications by applying techniques Landfill - Assassins [ citation needed ].
They can also cover waste usually daily with layers of soil or other types of material such as woodchips and fine particles. During landfill operations, a scale or weighbridge Landfill - Assassins weigh waste collection vehicles on arrival and personnel may inspect loads for wastes that do not accord with the landfill's waste-acceptance criteria. Afterward, the waste collection vehicles use the existing road network Landfill - Assassins their way to the tipping face or working front, where they unload their contents.
After loads are deposited, compactors or bulldozers can spread and compact the waste on the working face. Before leaving the landfill boundaries, the waste collection vehicles may pass through a wheel-cleaning facility. If necessary, they return to the weighbridge for re-weighing without their load. The weighing process can assemble statistics on the daily incoming waste tonnage, which databases can retain for record keeping.
In addition to trucks, some landfills may have equipment to handle railroad containers. The use of "rail-haul" permits landfills to be located at more remote sites, without the problems associated with many truck trips. Typically, in the working face, the compacted waste is covered with soil or alternative materials daily. Alternative waste-cover materials include chipped wood or other "green waste",  several sprayed-on foam products, chemically "fixed" bio-solids, and temporary blankets.
Blankets can be lifted into place at night and then removed the following day prior to waste placement. The space that is occupied daily by the compacted waste and the cover material is called a daily cell. Waste compaction is critical to extending the Landfill - Assassins of the landfill.
Factors such as waste compressibility, waste-layer thickness and the number of passes of the compactor over the waste affect the waste densities. The term landfill is usually shorthand for a municipal landfill or sanitary landfill. These facilities were first introduced early in the 20th century, but Landfill - Assassins wide use in the s and s, in an effort to eliminate open dumps and other "unsanitary" waste disposal practices.
The sanitary landfill is an engineered facility that separates and confines waste. Sanitary landfills are intended as biological reactors bioreactors in which microbes will break down complex organic waste into simpler, less toxic compounds over time. These reactors must be designed and operated according to regulatory standards and guidelines See environmental engineering. Usually, aerobic decomposition is the first stage by which wastes are broken down in a landfill.
These are followed by four stages of anaerobic degradation. Usually, solid organic material in solid phase decays rapidly as larger organic molecules degrade into smaller molecules. These smaller organic molecules begin to dissolve and move to the liquid phase, followed by hydrolysis of these organic molecules, and the hydrolyzed compounds then undergo transformation and volatilization as carbon dioxide CO 2 and methane CH 4with rest of the waste remaining in solid and liquid phases.
During the early phases, little material volume reaches I May Be Wrong - Gerry Mulligan Quartet - Jazztracks leachateas the biodegradable organic matter of the waste undergoes a rapid decrease in volume. Meanwhile, the leachate's chemical oxygen demand increases with increasing concentrations of the more recalcitrant compounds compared to the more reactive compounds in the leachate.
Successful conversion and stabilization of the waste depends on how well microbial populations function in syntrophyi. The life cycle of a municipal landfill undergoes five distinct phases:  . As the waste is placed in the landfill, the void spaces contain high volumes of molecular oxygen O 2. With added and compacted wastes, the O 2 content of the landfill bioreactor strata gradually decreases. Microbial populations grow, density increases.
Aerobic biodegradation dominates, i. The O 2 is rapidly degraded by the existing microbial populations. The decreasing O 2 leads to less aerobic and more anaerobic conditions in the layers. The primary electron acceptors during transition are nitrates and sulphates, since O 2 is rapidly displaced by CO 2 in the effluent gas.
Hydrolysis of the biodegradable fraction of the solid waste begins in the acid formation phase, which leads to rapid accumulation of volatile fatty acids VFAs in the leachate. The increased organic acid content decreases the leachate pH from approximately 7.
High concentrations of VFAs increase both the biochemical oxygen demand BOD and VOA concentrations, which initiates H 2 production by fermentative III - Le Rouge Gorge - Olivier Messiaen, Louise Bessette - Les Oiseaux, which stimulates the growth of H 2 -oxidizing bacteria.
The H 2 generation phase is relatively short because it is complete by the end of the acid formation phase. The increase in the biomass of acidogenic bacteria increases the amount of degradation of Landfill - Assassins waste material and consuming nutrients. Metals, which are generally more water-soluble at lower pH, may become more mobile during this phase, leading to increasing metal concentrations in the leachate.
The acid formation phase intermediary products e. As VFAs are metabolized by the methanogens, the landfill water pH returns to neutrality. The leachate's organic strength, experessed as oxygen demand, decreases at a rapid rate with increases in CH 4 and CO 2 gas production.
This is the longest decomposition phase. The rate of microbiological activity slows during the last phase of waste decomposition as the supply of nutrients limits the chemical reactions, e. CH 4 production almost completely disappears, with O 2 and oxidized species gradually reappearing in the gas wells as O 2 permeates downwardly from the troposphere. This transforms the oxidation—reduction potential ORP in the leachate toward oxidative processes. The residual organic Landfill - Assassins may incrementally be converted to the gas phase, and as organic matter is composted; i.
Landfills have the potential to cause a number of issues. Infrastructure disruption, such as damage to access roads by heavy vehicles, may occur. Pollution of local roads and water courses from wheels on vehicles when they leave the landfill can be significant and can be mitigated by wheel washing systems. Pollution of the local environmentsuch as contamination of groundwater or aquifers Landfill - Assassins soil contamination may occur, as well.
When precipitation falls on open landfills, water percolates through the garbage and Landfill - Assassins contaminated with suspended and dissolved material, forming leachate. If this is not contained it can contaminate groundwater. All modern landfill sites use a combination of impermeable liners several metres thick, geologically stable sites and collection systems Be With You (Fernando Garibays Club Mix - Enrique Iglesias - Be With You (Remixes) contain and capture this leachate.
It can then be treated and evaporated. Once a landfill site is full, it is sealed off to prevent precipitation ingress and new leachate formation. Landfill - Assassins , liners must have a lifespan, be it several hundred years or more. Eventually, any landfill liner could leak,  so the ground around landfills must be tested for leachate to prevent pollutants from contaminating groundwater.
Rotting food and other decaying organic waste creates decomposition gasesespecially CO 2 and CH 4 from aerobic and anaerobic decomposition, respectively. Both processes occur simultaneously in different parts of a Landfill - Assassins . In addition Landfill - Assassins available O 2the fraction of gas constituents will vary, depending on the age of landfill, type of waste, moisture content and other factors.
For example, the maximum amount of landfill gas produced can be illustrated a simplified net reaction of diethyl oxalate that accounts for these simultaneous reactions: .
On average, about half of the volumetric concentration of landfill gas is CH 4 and slightly less than half is CO 2. Landfill gases can seep out of the landfill and into the surrounding air and soil. Methane is a Landfill - Assassins gasand is flammable and potentially explosive at certain concentrations, which makes it perfect for burning to generate electricity cleanly.
Since decomposing plant matter and food waste only release carbon Landfill - Assassins has been captured from Landfill - Assassins atmosphere through photosynthesis, no new carbon enters the carbon cycle and the atmospheric concentration of CO 2 is not affected. Carbon dioxide traps heat in the atmosphere, contributing to climate change.
Poorly run landfills may become nuisances because of vectors such as rats and flies which can spread infectious diseases. The occurrence of Landfill - Assassins vectors can be mitigated through the use of daily cover.
Other potential issues include wildlife disruption, [ how? Gases are produced in landfills due to the anaerobic digestion by microbes. In a properly managed landfill this gas is collected and used. Its uses range from simple flaring to the landfill gas utilization and generation of electricity.
Landfill gas monitoring alerts workers to the presence of a build-up of gases to a harmful level. In some countries, landfill gas recovery is Princes - Björn Kleinhenz - Quietly Happy And Deep Inside in the United States, for example, more than landfills have active landfill gas recovery systems.
Landfills in Canada are regulated by provincial environmental agencies and environmental protection legislation.
In the European Landfill - Assassins , individual states are obliged to enact legislation to comply with the requirements and obligations of the European Landfill Directive. Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Poland, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, Austria and Slovenia have laws banning or severely restricting the disposal of household trash via landfills.
Landfilling practices in the UK have had to change in recent years to meet the challenges of the European Landfill Directive. The UK now imposes landfill tax upon biodegradable waste which is put into landfills. In addition to this the Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme has been established for local authorities to trade landfill quotas in England.
A different system operates in Wales where authorities are not able to 'trade' between themselves, but have allowances known as the Landfill Allowance Scheme. Permitting a landfill generally takes between five and seven years, costs millions of dollars and requires rigorous siting, engineering and environmental studies and demonstrations to ensure local environmental and safety concerns are satisfied.
The status of a landfill's microbial community may determine its digestive efficiency. Bacteria that digest plastic have been found in landfills. One can treat landfills as a viable and abundant source of materials and energy. In the developing world, waste pickers often scavenge for still-usable materials. In commercial contexts, companies have also discovered landfill sites, and many [ quantify ] have begun harvesting materials and energy.
This material recovery is possible through the use of filters electro filteractive-carbon and potassium filter, quench, HCl-washer, SO 2 -washer, bottom ash Landfill - Assassinsetc.
In addition to waste reduction and recycling strategies, there are various alternatives to landfills, including waste-to-energy incineration, anaerobic digestioncompostingmechanical biological treatmentpyrolysis and plasma arc gasification. Depending on local economics and incentives, these can be made more financially attractive than landfills.
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