During a career that spanned 45 years, she attained international stardom as an actress in both musical and dramatic roles, as a recording artist, and on the concert stage.
She is considered by many to be one of the greatest artists of the 20th Century. Garland began performing in vaudeville as a child with her two elder sisters and was later signed to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer as a teenager. Garland was a frequent on-screen partner of both Mickey Rooney and Gene Kelly and regularly collaborated with director and second husband Vincente Minnelli. Some of her film appearances during this period include roles in Meet Me in St.
Garland was released from MGM inafter 15 years with the studio, amid a series of personal struggles that prevented her from fulfilling the terms of her contract. Although her film career became intermittent thereafter, two of Garland's most critically acclaimed performances came late in her career: she received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actress for her performance in A Star Is Born and a nomination for Best Supporting Actress for her role in Judgment at Nuremberg She also made record-breaking concert appearances, released eight studio albumsand hosted her own Emmy -nominated television series, The Judy Garland Show — At age 39, Garland became the youngest and first female recipient of the Cecil B.
DeMille Award for lifetime achievement in the film industry. Several of her recordings have been inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fameand inthe American Film Institute placed her among the 10 greatest female stars of classic American cinema. Garland struggled in her personal life from an early age. The pressures of early stardom affected her physical and mental health Sheeps Clothing - One Be Lo - L.A.B.O.R. her teens onward; her self-image was influenced and constantly criticized by film executives who believed that she was physically unattractive.
Those same executives manipulated her onscreen physical appearance. Her lifelong addiction to drugs, including alcohol, ultimately led to her death in London from an accidental barbiturate overdose at age Her parents were vaudevillians who settled in Grand Rapids to run a movie theater that featured vaudeville acts.
She was of Irish, English, and Scottish ancestry,   named Life Is You - Seenlum - Seenlum both of her parents and baptized at a local Episcopal church.
The family relocated to Lancaster, Californiain Junefollowing rumors that her father had made sexual advances towards male ushers. Inthe Gumm Sisters enrolled in a dance school run by Ethel Meglin, proprietress of the Meglin Kiddies dance troupe. They appeared with the troupe at its annual Christmas show. This was followed by appearances in two Vitaphone shorts the following year: A Holiday in Storyland featuring Garland's first on-screen solo and The Wedding of Jack and Jill.
They next appeared together in Bubbles. The trio had toured the vaudeville circuit as "The Gumm Sisters" for many years when they performed in Chicago at the Oriental Theater with George Jessel in He encouraged the group to choose a more appealing name after "Gumm" was met with laughter from the audience. I Want You To Have Everything - Rudy Robinson Trio - I Want You To Have Everything / Funny to theater legend, their act was once erroneously billed at a Chicago theater as "The Glum Sisters".
Several stories persist regarding the origin of their use of the name Garland. One is that it was originated by Jessel after Carole Lombard 's character Lily Garland in the film Twentieth Centurywhich was then playing at the Oriental in Chicago; another is that the girls chose the surname after drama critic Robert Garland.
A later explanation surfaced when Jessel was a guest on Garland's television I Want You To Have Everything - Rudy Robinson Trio - I Want You To Have Everything / Funny in He said that he had sent actress Judith Anderson a telegram containing the word "garland" and it stuck in his mind.
By latethe Gumm Sisters had changed their name to the Garland Sisters. In SeptemberLouis B. Mayer asked songwriter Burton Lane to go to the Orpheum Theater in downtown Los Angeles to watch the Garland Sisters' vaudeville act and to report to him. Garland performed " Zing!
The studio did not know what to do with her; aged thirteen, she was older than the traditional child star, but too young for adult roles. Her physical appearance was a dilemma for I Want You To Have Everything - Rudy Robinson Trio - I Want You To Have Everything / Funny . She was self-conscious and anxious about her appearance.
I think it had a very damaging effect on her emotionally for a long time. I think it lasted forever, really. Mayer, who referred to her as his "little hunchback". During her early years at the studio, she was photographed and dressed in plain garments or frilly juvenile gowns and costumes to match the "girl-next-door" image created for her.
They had her wear removable caps on her teeth and rubberized discs to reshape her nose. On November 16,thirteen-year-old Garland was in the midst of preparing for a radio performance on the Shell Chateau Hour when she learned that her father had been hospitalized with meningitis and had taken a turn for the worse. Frank Gumm died the following morning at age forty-nine, leaving her devastated. Her song for the Shell Chateau Hour was her first professional rendition of "Zing!
Went the Strings of My Heart", a song which became a standard in many of her concerts. Garland performed at various studio functions and was eventually cast opposite Deanna Durbin in the musical-short Every Sunday The film contrasted her vocal range and swing style with Durbin's operatic soprano and served as an extended screen test for them, as studio executives were questioning the wisdom of having two girl singers on the roster.
Her rendition was so well regarded that she performed the song in the all-star extravaganza Broadway Melody ofwhen she sang to a photograph of him. MGM hit on a winning formula when it paired Garland with Mickey Rooney in a string of what were known as "backyard musicals".
Garland was then put in the cast of the fourth of the Hardy Family movies as a literal girl-next-door to Rooney's character Andy Hardy, in Love Finds Andy Hardyalthough Hardy's love interest was played by Lana Turner.
They teamed as lead characters for the first time in Babes in Armsultimately appearing in five additional films, including Hardy films Andy Hardy Meets Debutante and Life Begins for Andy Hardy Garland stated that she, Rooney, and other young performers were constantly prescribed amphetamines in order to stay awake and keep up with the frantic pace of making one film after another.
They were also given barbiturates to take I Want You To Have Everything - Rudy Robinson Trio - I Want You To Have Everything / Funny going to bed so they could sleep.
She later resented the hectic schedule and believed MGM stole her youth. Rooney, however, denied their studio was responsible for her addiction: "Judy Garland was never given any drugs by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.
Mayer didn't sanction anything for Judy. No one on that lot was responsible for Judy Garland's death. Unfortunately, Judy chose that path. Garland's weight was within a healthy range, but the studio demanded she diet Girls Just Wanna Have Fun - Various - Songs For Aussie Mums: Volume 2. They even went so far as to serve her only a Live From The Carnival - Various - The Apes Have Taken Over Ape Management of soup and a plate of lettuce when she ordered a regular meal.
She required constant reassurance she was talented and attractive. Inshe was cast as the young Dorothy Gale in The Wizard of Oza film based on the children's book by L. Frank Baum. In this film she sang the song with which she would afterward be constantly identified, " Over the Rainbow ". Although producers Arthur Freed and Mervyn LeRoy had wanted to cast Same In The End - Sublime - Sublime in the role from the beginning, studio chief Mayer first tried to borrow Shirley Temple from 20th Century Foxbut they declined.
Deanna Durbin was then asked, but was unavailable; this resulted in Garland being cast. Garland was initially outfitted in a blonde wig for the part, but Freed and LeRoy decided against it shortly into filming. Her blue gingham dress was chosen for its blurring effect on her figure, which made her look younger. She and Rooney were sent on a cross-country promotional tour, culminating in the August 17 New York City premiere at the Capitol Theaterwhich included a five-show-a-day appearance schedule for the two stars.
She was the fourth person to receive the award as well as only one of twelve in history to ever be presented with one. In the last, she played So Long - ABBA - The Definitive Collection first adult role, a dual role of both mother and daughter. Little Nellie Kelly was purchased from George M.
Cohan as a vehicle for her to display both her audience appeal and her physical appearance. The role was a challenge for her, requiring the use of an accent, her first adult kiss, and the only death scene of her career. He said it felt like "a hillbilly with a child bride". During this time, Garland was still in her teens when she experienced her first serious adult romance with bandleader Artie Shaw.
She was deeply devoted to him and was devastated in early when he eloped with Lana Turner. The studio intervened because, at the time, he was still married to actress and singer Martha Raye. They agreed to wait a year to allow for his divorce to become final. During that time, Garland had a brief affair with songwriter Johnny Mercer. After her break-up with Mercer, Garland and Rose were wed on July 27, InGarland had an abortion while pregnant with Rose's child at the insistence of her mother and the studio since the pregnancy wasn't approved.
She had a second one in when she became pregnant from her affair with Tyrone Power. She was given the "glamor treatment" in Presenting Lily Marsin which she was dressed in "grown-up" gowns. Her lightened hair was also pulled up in a stylish fashion. However, no matter how glamorous or beautiful she appeared on screen or in photographs, she was never confident in her appearance and never escaped the "girl-next-door" image that the studio had created for her.
This was one of the first films in her career that gave her the opportunity to be the attractive leading lady. Vincente Minnelli was assigned to direct, and he requested that make-up artist Dorothy Ponedel be assigned to Garland. Ponedel refined her appearance in several ways, including extending and reshaping her eyebrows, changing her hairline, modifying her lip line and removing her nose Falling Away - DJ Chosen Few* / sAphira* - Da Funky Beatz and dental caps.
She appreciated the results so much that Ponedel was written into her contract for all her remaining pictures at MGM. At Mays Lane - Beggars - Album Sampler time, Garland had a brief affair with film director Orson Welleswho at that time was married to Rita Hayworth. The affair ended in earlyand they remained on good terms afterwards.
During the filming of Meet Me in St. LouisGarland and Minnelli had some initial conflict between them, but they entered into a relationship and married on June 15, The Clock was Garland's first straight dramatic film; Robert Walker was cast in the main male role.
Though the film was critically praised and earned a profit, most movie fans expected her to sing. She did not act again in a non-singing dramatic role for many years.
During filming for The Pirate in AprilGarland suffered a nervous breakdown and was placed in a private sanitarium. The main reasons for its failure were not only its cost, but also the increasing expense of the shooting delays while Garland was ill, as well because the general public was not yet willing to accept her in a sophisticated film.